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  1. Reversed Logotype

    Reversed type optical illusion example.

    This image shows a particular optical illusion that confronts us every day. Notice the difference between the black text on a white background and the reverse. With reversed type — light text on a darker background — the strokes seem bolder.

    Black text on white is very familiar, so we can be forgiven for thinking it correctly proportioned. For familiarity’s sake we can say it is, but there are two effects happening here: The white background bleeds over the black, making the strokes seem thinner. With reversed type the opposite is true: The white strokes bleed over the black, making it seem bolder.

    Punched, backlit letters on a sign outside the Nu Hotel, Brooklyn.

    One of the most obvious examples of this is with signs where the letters are punched into the surround then lit from inside. In his article, Designing the ultimate wayfinding typeface, Ralph Herrmann used his own Legibility Text Tool to simulate this effect for road and navigational signs.

    One might say that characters are only correctly proportioned with low-contrast. Although objective reality hails that as true, it isn’t a good reason to always set type with low contrast. Type designers have invariably designed around optical illusions and the constraints of different media for us. Low-contrast text can also create legibility and accessibility problems. Fortunately, kind folks like Gez Lemon have provided us with simple tools to check.

    As fascinating as optical illusions are —  the disturbing, impossible art of Escher comes to mind — we can design around reversed body type. On the Web, increasing tracking and leading are as simple as increasing the mis-named letter-spacing and line-height in CSS. However, decreasing font weight is a thornier problem. Yes, we will be able to use @font-face to select a variant with a lighter weight, but the core web fonts offer us no options, and there are only a few limited choices with system fonts like Helvetica Neue.

    Reversing a logotype

    For logotype there are plenty of options, but it makes me slightly uncomfortable to consider switching to a lighter font for reversed type logos. The typeface itself is not the logotype; the variant is, so switching font could be tricky. Ironically, I’d have to be very sure that that was no perceivable difference using a lighter weight font. Also, with display faces, there’s often not a lighter weight available — a problem I came across designing the Analog logo.

    The original Analog logo seen here is an adapted version of Fenway Park by Jason Walcott (Jukebox Type).

    Analog logo original.

    The logotype worked well when testing it in black on white. However, I wanted a reversed version, too. That’s when I noticed the impact of the optical illusion:

    (Reversed without any adjustment.)

    Analog logo reversed (flawed).

    It looked bloated! Objective reality be damned; it simply wouldn’t do. After a few minutes contemplating the carnage of adjusting every control point by hand, I remembered something; eureka!

    (Reversed then punched.)

    Analog logo reversed (punched).

    Punching the paths through a background image in Fireworks CS4 removed the illusion. (Select both the path and the background then using Modify > Combine Paths > Punch.) Is this a bug? I don’t know, but if it is, it’s a useful one for a change!

    Modify > Combine Paths > Punch in Fireworks CS4.

    N.B. I confess I haven’t tested this in any other Adobe products, but perhaps you will be so bold? (’scuse the pun. :)

    Fireworks CS4 screenshot.

    Matthew Kump mentions an Illustrator alternative in the comments.

    I grinned. I was happy. All was well with the world again. Lovely! Now I could go right ahead and think about colour and I wouldn’t be far from done. This is how it emerged:

    Analog logo.

    A final note on logotype design & illusions

    Before we even got to actual type for the Analog logo, we first had to distill what it would convey. In our case, Alan took us through a process to define the brand values and vision. What emerged were keywords and concepts that fed into the final design. The choice of type, colour, and setting were children of that process. Style is the offspring of meaning.

    I always work in greyscale for the first iterations of a new logo for a few simple reasons:

    1. The form has to work independently of colour — think printing in greyscale or having the logo viewed by people with a colour-impairment.
    2. It allows for quick testing of various sizes — small, high contrast versions will emphasise rendering and legibility issues at screen resolutions, especially along curves.
    3. I like black and white. :)

    I realise that in this day and age the vast majority of logos need to perform primarily on the Web. However, call me old-fashioned, but I still think that they should work in black and white, too.

    Brands and display faces emerged with consumer culture during the 19th Century. Logotypes were displayed prominently in high streets, advertising hoardings, and on sign boards. In many instances the message would be in black and white. They were designed to be legible from a distance, at a glance, and to be instantly recognisable. Even with colour, contrast was important.

    The same is true for the Web today; only the context has changed, and the popularity of logomarks and icons. We should always test any logo at low resolutions and sizes, and the brand must still have good contrast (regardless of WCAG 2.0) to be optimal. A combination of colour and form works wonders, but in a world of a million colours where only a handful are named in common parlance, having the right form still seems a smarter choice than trying to own a palette or colour.

    A final word

    This article was prompted by a happy accident followed by a bit of reading. There are many references to optical illusions in design and typography books. The example image at the start of this article was inspired by one found in the excellent Stop Stealing Sheep and Find Out How Type Works by Erik Spiekermann and E.M. Ginger. There’s also plenty of online material about optical or visual illusions you can dive into. There’s also more on how the eye processes light. Oh, and don’t forget the work of M. C. Escher!

    Human eyes are amazing. In two sets of watery bags we get a wide-angle lens with incredibly sharp focus and ridiculous depth of field. Apparently our brain is even clever enough to compensate for the lag in the signal getting from retina to cortex. I know next to nothing about ocular science. Spending a morning reading and thinking about optical illusions, and contemplating my own view here in the garden office is pretty awe-inspiring. If only my photographs were as good as my eyes, illusions or no.

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  2. An Ephemeral Site: Denna Jones

    Denna Jones is a designer, and we recently launched a site for her that is unlike any other that Jon Gibbins and I have done before. This is it:

    Screenshot of dennajones.com

    The evolutionary bit for us is under the hood, and to understand why, let me introduce you to Denna, herself.

    Introducing Denna Jones

    Denna’s fascinating to talk to because she is genuinely erudite. Her influences are as diverse as her roles. She’s a former Designer-in-Residence at Central St Martin’s College of Art and Design for the B.A. Architecture course. Currently, she’s Lead Artist for DLA Architecture’s Masterplanning Team, Deputy Editor of Art and Architecture Journal, and the Resident Curator responsible for delivering the arts strategy for the massive Devonport regeneration project. Most recently, Denna’s contributed to books like 1001 Buildings You Must See Before You Die and had an invitation to be the editor of a new tome in the series, 1001 Houses You Must See Before You Die.

    Luckily for us, Denna’s work with spacial narratives is often exploratory, so she was open to our newfangled experiments.

    A Web 2.0 problem

    Denna is also prolific around the Web. She documents her projects and travels using Flickr, and regularly reads, writes about, and observes Web culture as part of her work. So when she came to us to discuss a site it seemed to me she embodied a problem I’d been thinking about for a while: How can our domains be connected to our other personal accounts more naturally? Domains are our identity. However, much of what we publish is locked into other sites where we share it. It’s accessible by APIs at best, or clunky widgets at worst. Technical people can pull everything together but for non-technical people it’s not intuitive. Then there’s the issues of legacy content and copyright. Unsolved as yet, but looming. What will happen to all of our content in five, ten or twenty years time? Will we still have content strewn around the Web disconnected for the most part? Somehow we need to connect the dots. Maybe portable social networks are part of the answer, or Google’s OpenSocial. Whatever the answer, I wanted to include Denna’s existing content in her own site, and to make the future relationship between her Web activity and personal site as seamless as possible.

    Web services, say hi to dennajones.com

    The content on Denna’s site is delivered exclusively by Web services. We take advantage of the ability to share and manipulate data that those services provide to Denna, then let her choose what to publish on her site, and in what context. This is how:

    • Flickr is used to manage all images and some of the site copy direct from Denna’s account. That includes the main display images on the home page, the introduction copy on her work page, and the images and copy for projects. Work projects are managed via a specific Flickr collection, with each set being a project. This enables Denna to choose the display image and write a description that appears on the site. Visitors can also drill deeper via the project link to see other images that Denna has added to each project on Flickr.
    • Tumblr is used for Denna’s blog and her about page. The site archives her entries and allows access to tags and dates exactly like a conventional blog would. We also use tags to display different content around the site like the entries tagged with “projects” that are displayed on the work page.
    • Ma.gnolia is used for bookmarks.
    • Twitter is used for random thoughts and snapshots of her day.
    • Upcoming manages events.
    • Technorati is used for references to her posts in the wider blogosphere in place of allowing local comments which were considered but discarded.
    • Feedburner manages all feeds.
    • Google is used for site search.

    Jon Gibbins did the heavy lifting around the idea, using CakePHP and SimplePie to manage the incoming data. He also added functionality like Technorati reference counts, and the ability for Denna to refresh her site as soon as she published something elsewhere if she didn’t wish to wait for the automatic updates.

    Other small touches were also a pleasure to see unfold, like Denna’s footer image being her Flickr profile image, and the text describing her blog coming directly from her Tumblr byline.

    Denna’s Tumblr account is not linked because she wishes it to remain private.

    Tumblr posed the most significant problems. When we started development, tags were invisible on Tumblr. Entries could be tagged, but tags were not displayed anywhere for people to use. They were absent from the API. Jon Gibbins wrote a workaround and fired an email to Tumblr suggesting it might be good to give people some way of using tags. After a couple of weeks Jon came back to me and declared that although he hadn’t had a reply, the API had just changed to allow tag access. Perfect! We got an email a couple of days later from the Tumblr crew: Did we know that the API supported tags?

    Visual design, typography & layout

    I wanted the design to be a container to allow Denna’s own content to flourish. Although we discussed style, and helped Denna formulate her own house style, it was very much in her hands. Strangely, I had no reservations about this. Putting the choice of stock images in the hands of a client might seem risky to some folks; to me it was exciting, especially as Denna was so enthusiastic about having such an intimate level of control over her own site.

    Typography and layout have a touch of the Swiss modern using Helvetica Neue or Arial (depending on your platform) with a traditional scale. The layout is a hybrid—part fluid, part elastic — meaning it defaults to a 1024px viewport width, shrinks to fit 800px-wide viewports, but grows with browser font size until it fills the available viewport and then wraps.

    Information verbitecture

    The information architecture mostly uses verbs in the directory names—an idea that first surfaced with Chris Shiflett during our recent OmniTI design. It means that web addresses make up sentences wherever useful. For example, a blog entry has a URL of http://dennajones.com/writes/entry-title.

    HTML, JavaScript & microformats

    Plain old semantic HTML is used with CSS for styling. The interface was designed with accessibility firmly in mind; all JavaScript is introduced as a progressive enhancement to PHP-powered features like the slide-show for the home page.

    Microformats are used wherever appropriate: hCard for Denna’s contact details; hAtom for blog entries; hCalendar for Upcoming events.

    There is still more things we’d like to do, but in the meantime we’ve got a great head start and hopefully the beginnings of something special for an exceptionally interesting voice on the Web.

    Parting shots

    Working with Denna was inspirational. Her boundless curiosity, willingness to experiment, and professional skill made the whole process lots of fun. Her uncompromising belief in the ability of art and design to improve people’s lives makes her just the sort of person we need consulting on the future of our public spaces. It was a pleasure to give her a quasi-professional site that hopefully embodies the spirit of collaboration, personal creativity and expression we all admire. You can read more of her own thoughts on the design in her entry, Websites and the Science of Happiness. I’ll leave you with the opening line of that entry; it’s humbling to be though of in this way:

    “The designers of this website are happiness merchants.”

    Thanks Denna.

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  3. A Site for Sore Eyes: OmniTI

    You may have seen the recent case study featuring the evolution of OmniTI’s brand mark. Work on their new web site started soon after that was finished. This is what we did:

    OmniTI index

    OmniTI’s CTO Chris Shiflett and I worked closely on every aspect of the vision, brand message, information architecture, copy writing and content. For me it was the best kind of arrangement resulting in a piece of work I’m especially pleased with. Along the way we developed the kind of relationship that I’ve come to treasure, making me feel like I work in a collaborative industry, rather than a service one.

    OmniTI Sketch mark

    Metaphors for the invisible

    Discussions around the new site made me think of two interesting design problems. Scalability and performance, security, development and infrastructure are invisible arts. Historically, companies have fallen back on metaphors to communicate what they do visually: Faux boxes of imaginary software; stock photography of happy people at computers; they never worked for me. From my perspective, OmniTI is one of the finest development companies in the world. They’ve written some of the seminal technical books in our industry. They work for some of the most heavily trafficked sites on the planet like Digg, Friendster, National Geographic and Facebook. Their contributions to open source are legendary, with their utilities being used by Yahoo!, amongst many others. When tackling email on a massive scale they built the world’s fastest mail transfer agent. To reduce what they are capable of to awkward metaphors seemed disingenuous. I wanted to do something different.

    Another significant problem was how to convey personality. People buy from people, especially in a service industry. The relationships we develop are priceless. Many developers in our business—especially those who attend conferences like OSCON where they often speak—are already aware of the people at OmniTI, but they themsevles don’t tend to shout about what they do. Part of the reason for this is the culture of the company itself: Relaxed and down-to-earth but jam packed full of some of the most talented people anyone could hope to work with. Excellence has become commonplace, making celebrating it feel almost un-natural. It just happens by default. So, the web site needed to show some leg, reveal their personality as well as their work, without forcing patterns of publishing on them that would not be maintained.

    These problems made the job interesting. I wanted to accomplish three specific goals:

    1. Make OmniTI accessible. Personalise the brand, reveal the company character, and the people within it.
    2. Communicate the scale, quality and depth of what they do to technical and non-technical people.
    3. Make the whole experience of researching and contacting them simple, easy and useful.

    Collaboration

    To try and accomplish the goals we took a novel approach to design. It might seem ad-hoc, but it was deliberately organic; we let everything develop collaboratively, at almost the same time: From setting the vision to requirements gathering, persona development and task analysis, through to information architecture and copy writing. It sounds insane, but with a condensed time-line and a lot of intellectualising to be done, it worked in a way that only a small agile team that knows each other well can do.

    Along the way we went through four related iterations of style. Each reflected a development stage in the multi-track process we embarked on. The staff started writing a personal note for their own profiles. Some chose to stay with the professional photos, others supplied their own. All of it real though and unfiltered by marketing hype. Read the personal note of Rob Speed to get a glimpse of what I mean. The iterations kept getting better. In fact, everything kept getting better. Nothing is ever perfect, but a feeling of constant iterative improvement is a joy in itself. These are some of the highlights from my point of view:

    Theme, copy writing & content

    The theme is deliberately textual. OmniTI is a company that manipulates data in ways that are so esoteric that sometimes I had a hard time conceptualising the scale, nevermind the method. Text is the prevalent form of web data. It felt right to focus on it.

    Early on I decided to drop almost all decorative images and anything that was not content from the design. The data, the typography, they became the decoration. That went hand-in-hand with the decision to let OmniTI’s people, work and clients tell the company story. We decided to have a dual section in the planet for official company news and relevant posts from the staff’s own personal blogs. For the rest of the site, any copy that didn’t reflect the spirit of the company was avoided, and that which was left would be factual, not hyperbolic. Any claims OmniTI have made are under-estimates, and therefore all the more exceptional.

    Tiered detail

    I wanted to find a way of communicating the scope of their ability in a simple way. The audience diversity made this problematic. When developing personas to identify who we wanted to reach, two stood out: The technician and the executive. Both have very different requirements from the site. Both required detail in different areas. The first answer to this was for the home page. To grab people’s attention, I had the idea to display the actual output of their work as data in real time. There were technical and disclosure issues. We settled (for now) on showing some meta-level data around the number of pages and people that OmniTI’s clients serve:

    Screenshot: 'last month we helped some of our clients publish 880 million web pages, seen by 93 million people.'

    This will evolve over time and also be stored in an archive for future reference. Even more importantly, it is no mere boast. The figures are independently gathered and conservatively rounded down.

    The next solution was to somehow ease all of the audience into the site, whether they were technical or not. The narrative pattern we developed I call tiered detail. At the first level, like the index or any of the main navigation landing pages, chunks of different data are labeled with headers that encourage page skimming to find interesting topics. Copy is short, terse, accurate. The second level, like a personal profile, is more detailed and specific but has contextual links to related second level topics. The copy has links to third level pages where the focus narrows further to provide the kind of detail some people might want. These third level areas can be on site or off site—we didn’t distinguish between the two. All detail is useful when you want it.

    URLs

    Both Chris and I love beautiful, clean URLs. So when he came up with the idea of using verbs rather than nouns in the information architecture we we quickly agreed to make it so. The outcome of a fair degree of debate and wrangling is the structure you see today. The about page is http://omniti.com/is, the work page is http://omniti.com/does, etc. Deeper pages have a URL that forms a sentence, such as:

    http://omniti.com/does/security

    All trailing slashes have been removed making for highly legible and beautiful URLs in any context. More traditional URLs are redirected to the verb, so people can still type http://omniti.com/about and reach the about page. If you wish to know more, read Chris’s post, URLs can be beautiful.

    Typography & palette

    Evolving an interface from a brand, the type choices of which I had nothing to do with, is always interesting. Trying to find compliments is fascinating, even more so in a design that relies heavily on type composition and treatment for decoration. I’ll pretty much let the typography speak for itself .

    Italic Baskerville ampersands in the byline

    Highlights for me are the raised initial used in headlines which I always see as an icon, my favourite Baskerville italic ampersand used in the byline on the home page, and other subtle treatments like the semantics of the page titles or contextual links. I used a traditional scale, body copy is set in Georgia by Matthew Carter with the headlines set in a Lucida stack.

    The palette is included in this section because the typography developed alongside it, and they are irrevocably linked. Or, I should say, they are tonally co-dependent. Although the palette is autumnal, it is a counterpoint to the season, and you may see us have some fun with it over time, but the effect will persist: Type highlighted by luminosity, regardless of palette.

    Layout, functionality & accessible Ajax

    The layout is elastic in every respect to a strict baseline grid. This served the narrative theme, splitting the content in to equal chunks higher in the architecture for skimming, resolving to conventional asymmetric columns deeper in.

    OmniTI contact Ajax

    Jon Gibbins did a sterling job implementing the JavaScript effects on the site. He chose jQuery and added some flavour of his own to make everything accessible with or without JavaScript turned on. That extends to the Google Map on the contact page which fills the expanding container as font size is adjusted. Jon also audited the site for accessibility generally, applying his uniquely pedantic but practical approach to support a wide range of disabilities, especially where the JavaScript is concerned. You can read more in his post, Accessible Ajax: OmniTI.

    All other functionality was handled by OmniTI, with Theo himself building an unbelievably quick search engine with Perl in about an hour, and Chris building out the CMS equally as fast it seemed.

    Experience & narrative

    As designers, we wear a multitude of hats. In the final analysis I think we’re experience designers more than anything else. In many cases we use design to tell stories, or help a story unfold. We create spaces in which enacted or emergent narratives exist and the OmniTI site is no different. Like all real tales though, there’s still much to be told. Hopefully they have a good starting point; an authentic opening chapter where the history of the last ten years can sit comfortably with the next ten.

    For my part, I hope the story is a joy to read. I hope the design is unobtrusive and becomes an ambient signifier that adds a little texture to the content. It is a design I would have liked to implement for Grow itself, so a lot of my own predilections went into it. I was lucky: The great relationship that we have, and the creativity of OmniTI, allowed my ideas some breathing space. We took a journey that resulted in a site that is re-markedly different to other technical companies. Some might view that as dangerous. I think the opposite is true. To me it was a great project to do. Hopefully you’ll find it interesting enough to enjoy. If that’s the case, keep an eye on it; there may be some more subtle changes to come.

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  4. Iterations in Brand Design: OmniTI

    OmniTI flames

    OmniTI are instantly recognisable to almost anyone interested in open source development, scalability or security. Their client list reads like a who’s who of the Web. Many of their people are core contributors to open source technologies like PHP; some are co-creators of popular frameworks like CakePHP and Solar; they speak at many industry conferences and have written eight critically-acclaimed technical books; they’re probably one of the most technically erudite and accomplished consulting companies working on the Web today.

    They asked me to work on their identity to mark their tenth anniversary and the separation of the email part of their business off in to a separate entity. This is an insight into the process and how the final design was created:

    Scope & objectives

    In June 2007 the initial scope asked for a redesigned mark that would still be recognisable to people already familiar with the brand. That meant retaining many of the elements of the original, including the typeface, over the course of five iterations. This was the existing mark at the time:

    OmniTI original logo

    These are the objectives of the redesign we arrived at during the specification stage:

    1. Simplify the mark “O” and incorporate it into the type to render well for the Web at small and medium sizes as well as large.
    2. Make the mark as easy to understand as possible with the correct enunciation.
    3. Clarify the typography for the Web and provide “balance”.
    4. Make the form colour–independant and suitable for all formats: print, screen or otherwise.
    5. Make the mark unique and suitable for trade mark purposes.

    Type & typography

    Identifying the original typeface was straightforward. It was Century Gothic from Monotype Imaging: A Bauhaus-inspired geometric face designed specifically for digital systems, based on 20th Century, which was drawn by Sol Hess between 1936 and 1947 and in turn inspired by Futura. Century Gothic shipped with Windows from Win98.

    After reproducing the original type treatment, I quickly capitalised the name properly in order for it to be read more accurately. I converted the text portion of the mark to black and white, and began to play with anti-alias at low screen resolutions to show a quick revision to OmniTI before starting in earnest:

    OmniTI typography

    The weight of the capitals looked incongruous to me, but the quick revision gave us all food for thought. It set the tone for the direction the design would move in, and I got stuck in to the main body of work: Trying to find a way of simplifying the existing flaming comet and incorporating it in to the leading “O”.

    Simple & Complicated Revisions

    Iterating the existing mark forced me to go back to starting principles. Much of the form needed to be retained, but it had a significant problem: If this was an identity seen mostly on the screen, then the existing mark was too complicated, effectively breaking at lower sizes, and forcing OmniTI to use a comparatively large version for the “comet” to be rendered properly.

    The first two revisions were deliberately simplified as far as I could make them with some movement retained in the stylised “O”, but stripped completely of decoration:

    OmniTI revisions 1 and 2.

    These revisions were deliberately provocative on my part by being extremely simplified and pushing the limits of the brief. However, having something tangible gave everyone room to think and react. It made the boundaries of the brief slightly clearer and allowed me to continue with more of a feeling for the direction we needed to go in.

    From the super-simplified, the next two iterations re-introduced the trails from the original mark as flames, and swung the design in an opposite, more complicated direction:

    OmniTI revisions 3 and 4.

    This was deliberate, too. I’ve sometimes found that good results come from a design process that swings like a pendulum or an elliptical orbit around the final outcome. To find the right balance between the requirements it sometimes feel right to push the design out to the aphelion along certain lines of thought, then let the collaborative process pull it back to the perihelion where all the conditions are met and it works. That’s what happened for OmniTI. Collaborative discussion with them and their quality feedback was crucial to this approach.

    Final polish

    The final iteration combined the two approaches, with a more geometric comet that has echoes of the original, but more simply drawn. The letterforms were unlocked from the pixel grid, but with the anti-alias tightened. The acronym capitals were also adjusted. This was the result:

    OmniTI revision 5.

    During the OmniTI web site redesign (a case study will follow soon is now available) the logo was re-coloured to match the palette:

    OmniTI site logo.

    All of the iterations and development of the final brand mark were heavily influenced by the feedback of Chris Shiflett, Theo Schlossnagle, Brian Vaughn and the rest of the OmniTI folks who gave their time and opinions. This collaboration was crucial to get the end result. My job was to guide them through the technical design process and hold all of their requirements in my mind while the pixels and vectors appeared on the screen.

    It was a real privilege to be trusted with their brand. I think we achieved a good result from what is often an emotive exercise, and I’m particularly happy that we managed to build on the work that came before to reach the final design.

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  5. I {heart} Pixels

    Wandering around in my archives recently, I stumbled across a few pixel avatars. Here’s a sample:

    30 pixelated mini avatars

    A crazy way for a designer to spend time, perhaps, but there was something challenging about trying to bring pixels alive and give them character and detail at such a small size.

    CSRF, the character

    This year, those little “avs” and The IT Crowd inspired a few pixel characters created for Chris Shiflett to add some fun to web app security presentations.

    This is “CSRF”, (pronounced Sea-surf).You might meet “XSS” and “2 point oh” in one of Chris’ presentations but I’m reluctant to show them off before Chris has chance to. Please be gentle with them, like all Web villains, they’re really just looking for recognition and a cuddle.

    The little avs were created for one of the original 2–D graphical chat sites, OnChat which started in 1997 and, at its height, hosted thousands of visitors in hundreds of different rooms.

    The avatars were mobile on top of a static room background with speech or thought bubbles that appeared when users typed. It would pale against Second Life or There.com today, but it was created by a couple of guys, and revolutionary at the time.

    Looking back, part of the success was the simplicity. There was no requirement to join, users merely opened a Java applet in the browser. Before they knew it, they were immersed in a seemingly chaotic and infinite space, with little pixel avs all around them speaking and throwing thoughts to each other. Joining in was as simple as typing and using the mouse to move.

    The avatar creators of 1997 have no doubt grown up, moved on and got a proper job, but finding these again reminded me that the things we do for fun are often the most educational. The lessons and skills stay with us. Something I try and bear in mind when my sons and I are playing Robin Hood versus the Robber Sheriff and the eldest wants to shoot him with his “arrow barrow” after tying him up with a grappling hook.

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